nginx服务器的安装

  • 来源:天互数据
  • 作者:荣闯
  • 时间:2010-08-02 14:09:31
  • 阅读:2148次
nginx:Nginx (”engine X”) 是一个高性能的 HTTP 和 反向代理 服务器,也是一个 IMAP/POP3/SMTP 代理服务器。 Nginx 是由 Igor Sysoev 为俄罗斯访问量第二的 Rambler.ru 站点开发的,它已经在该站点运行超过两年半了。Igor 将源代码以类BSD许可证的形式发布。尽管还是测试版,但是,Nginx 已经因为它的稳定性、丰富的功能集、示例配置文件和低系统资源的消耗而闻名了。

中文维基地址:http://wiki.codemongers.com/NginxChs

模块依赖:
1 gzip支持,需要zlib http://www.zlib.net/ 下载最新版即可
2 rewrite module requires pcre library http://www.pcre.org/ 下载最新版即可
3 ssl 功能需要 openssl 库 http://www.openssl.org/ => http://www.openssl.org/source/ LASTEST版本即可

安装过程:

#下载以上source到/usr/local/src/nginx/目录下,解压,则该目录下情况如下:
[root@s16 nginx]# ls
nginx-0.6.32 nginx-0.6.32.tar.gz openssl-0.9.8i openssl-0.9.8i.tar.gz pcre-7.8 pcre-7.8.tar.gz zlib-1.2.3 zlib-1.2.3.tar.gz

cd nginx-0.6.32
./configure –with-pcre=../pcre-7.8 –with-zlib=../zlib-1.2.3 –with-openssl=../openssl-0.9.8i
make
make install

#OK,安装完成
#修改配置:
cd /usr/local/nginx
vi conf/nginx.conf
#例如,去掉例子中的8000端口的服务器配置的注释
sbin/nginx -t -c conf/nginx.conf (测试配置文件是否正确)
[root@s16 nginx]# sbin/nginx -t -c conf/nginx.conf
2008/09/17 15:26:55 [info] 15879#0: the configuration file conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
2008/09/17 15:26:55 [info] 15879#0: the configuration file conf/nginx.conf was tested successfully

sbin/nginx (启动)
ps aux | grep nginx | grep -v grep (查看是否正常启动了)
#如果没有正常启动,查看errorlog,默认位置:/usr/local/nginx/logs/error.log

#经过apache bench测试,nginx在serve静态文件方面性能不比apache(with mod_perl)好多少,基本上,以65K为分界点,小文件时nginx性能好(最高可以达到3倍左右速度),大文件时apache性能好(不过差别有限),所以纯从速度上来讲,nginx并不比apache强,不过nginx小巧,消耗资源少,如果你有很多静态小文件需要serve,的确是个不错的选择哦。

这里推荐一种架构:

1 前端nginx,并serve静态文件,如图片,js,css等,nginx是支持gzip压缩的

2 后端动态程序用fastcgi(lighttpd的spawn_fcgi即可),可以支持php,perl等多种脚本语言了

下面介绍一下nginx的常用配置:

1. 静态文件用nginx直接serve:

Nginx代码

1. #css|js|ico|gif|jpg|jpeg|png|txt|html|htm|xml|swf|wav这些都是静态文件,但应分辨,js、css可能经常会变,过期时间应小一些,图片、html基本不变,过期时间可以设长一些
2. location ~* ^.+\.(ico|gif|jpg|jpeg|png|html|htm)$ {
3. root /var/www/poseidon/root/static;
4. access_log off;
5. expires 30d;
6. }
7. location ~* ^.+\.(css|js|txt|xml|swf|wav)$ {
8. root /var/www/poseidon/root/static;
9. access_log off;
10. expires 24h;
11. }
12. #注:location不包括?后面带的参数,所以以上正则可以匹配?a=xxx

#css|js|ico|gif|jpg|jpeg|png|txt|html|htm|xml|swf|wav这些都是静态文件,但应分辨,js、css可能经常会变,过期时间应小一些,图片、html基本不变,过期时间可以设长一些
location ~* ^.+\.(ico|gif|jpg|jpeg|png|html|htm)$ {
root /var/www/poseidon/root/static;
access_log off;
expires 30d;
}
location ~* ^.+\.(css|js|txt|xml|swf|wav)$ {
root /var/www/poseidon/root/static;
access_log off;
expires 24h;
}
#注:location不包括?后面带的参数,所以以上正则可以匹配?a=xxx

1. 打开gzip,压缩传输
Nginx代码
1. gzip on;
2. gzip_comp_level 7;
3. gzip_min_length 1100; #需要压缩的最小长度
4. gzip_buffers 4 8k;
5. gzip_types text/plain application/javascript text/css text/xml application/x-httpd-php; #指定需要压缩的文件类型
6. output_buffers 1 32k;
7. postpone_output 1460;

gzip on;
gzip_comp_level 7;
gzip_min_length 1100; #需要压缩的最小长度
gzip_buffers 4 8k;
gzip_types text/plain application/javascript text/css text/xml application/x-httpd-php; #指定需要压缩的文件类型
output_buffers 1 32k;
postpone_output 1460;

1. 查看nginx的状态
Nginx代码
1. #设定查看Nginx状态的地址(非默认安装模块,需要在编译时加上–with-http_stub_status_module)
2. location /NginxStatus {
3. stub_status on;
4. access_log on;
5. auth_basic “NginxStatus”;
6. auth_basic_user_file /var/www/poseidon/root/passwd;
7. }

#设定查看Nginx状态的地址(非默认安装模块,需要在编译时加上–with-http_stub_status_module)
location /NginxStatus {
stub_status on;
access_log on;
auth_basic “NginxStatus”;
auth_basic_user_file /var/www/poseidon/root/passwd;
}

2. 使用nginx的rewrite模块
Nginx代码
1. #强大的rewrite模块:
2. #文档:http://wiki.codemongers.com/NginxHttpRewriteModule
3. #经典示例:rewrites http://www.mydomain.nl/foo => http://mydomain.nl/foo
4. if ($host ~* www\.(.*)) {
5. set $host_without_www $1;
6. rewrite ^(.*)$ http://$host_without_www$1 permanent; # $1 contains ‘/foo’, not ‘www.mydomain.nl/foo
7. }
8.
9. #我们的应用:rewrites 所有非www.popovivi.com的访问 => http://www.popovivi.com/xxx
10. if ($host != “www.popovivi.com”) {
11. rewrite ^(.*)$ http://www.popovivi.com$1 permanent;
12. }

#强大的rewrite模块:
#文档:http://wiki.codemongers.com/NginxHttpRewriteModule
#经典示例:rewrites http://www.mydomain.nl/foo => http://mydomain.nl/foo
if ($host ~* www\.(.*)) {
set $host_without_www $1;
rewrite ^(.*)$ http://$host_without_www$1 permanent; # $1 contains ‘/foo’, not ‘www.mydomain.nl/foo
}

#我们的应用:rewrites 所有非www.popovivi.com的访问 => http://www.popovivi.com/xxx
if ($host != “www.popovivi.com”) {
rewrite ^(.*)$ http://www.popovivi.com$1 permanent;
}

3. 最常见的nginx+fastcgi+php的使用
Shell代码
1. #nginx+fastcgi+php-cgi套路:
2. wget lighttpd1.4.19(or later)
3. wget php5.2.6(or later)
4. ./configure –prefix=/usr/local/lighttpd
5. make & make install
6. ./configure –prefix=/usr/local/php-5.2.6 –enable-fastcgi –enable-sockets –enable-force-cgi-redirect –with-gd –enable-mbstring –with-zlib –with-mysql –with-gettext –with-mcrypt –with-mime-magic –with-openssl
7. make & make test & make install(php.ini的默认读取位置为[prefix]/lib)
8. cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/php-5.2.6/lib/php.ini
9. /usr/local/nginx/sbin/spawn-fcgi -a 127.0.0.1 -p 10005 -u nobody -g nobody -f /usr/local/php-5.2.6/bin/php-cgi -P /var/run/fastcgi.pid -C 15
10.
11. #修改nginx的配置文件,使用fastcgi_pass http://127.0.0.1:10005作为后端
12. kill -HUP `cat /var/run/nginx.pid` #重启nginx

#nginx+fastcgi+php-cgi套路:
wget lighttpd1.4.19(or later)
wget php5.2.6(or later)
./configure –prefix=/usr/local/lighttpd
make & make install
./configure –prefix=/usr/local/php-5.2.6 –enable-fastcgi –enable-sockets –enable-force-cgi-redirect –with-gd –enable-mbstring –with-zlib –with-mysql –with-gettext –with-mcrypt –with-mime-magic –with-openssl
make & make test & make install(php.ini的默认读取位置为[prefix]/lib)
cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/php-5.2.6/lib/php.ini
/usr/local/nginx/sbin/spawn-fcgi -a 127.0.0.1 -p 10005 -u nobody -g nobody -f /usr/local/php-5.2.6/bin/php-cgi -P /var/run/fastcgi.pid -C 15

#修改nginx的配置文件,使用fastcgi_pass http://127.0.0.1:10005作为后端
kill -HUP `cat /var/run/nginx.pid` #重启nginx

4. nginx+fastcgi+catalyst(for perl users):
Shell代码
1. #Catalyst自带文档:
2. #http://dev.catalyst.perl.org/wik ... fastcgi.view?rev=22
3. #以上文档介绍的是lighttpd和catalyst的结合,本质是一样的
4. #实际上也就是用自动生成的script/[myapp]_fastcgi.pl来启动,剩下的事,就随意啦(只是用什么来做前端而已)
5. #首先安装FCGI模块
6. cpan
7. install FCGI
8. install FCGI:rocManager
9.
10. cd /var/www/project/script
11. chmod 755 project_fastcgi.pl
12. ./project_fastcgi.pl -listen 127.0.0.1:3003 -nproc 10 -pidfile /var/run/fcgi_catalyst.pid -daemon
13.
14. #nginx中,配置:
15. location / {
16. fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:3003;
17. include /var/www/project/root/fastcgi.conf;
18. }
19. #fastcgi.conf详细(注意点:将SCRIPT_NAME替换成PATH_INFO即可)
20. fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
21. fastcgi_param QUERY_STRING $query_string;
22. fastcgi_param REQUEST_METHOD $request_method;
23. fastcgi_param CONTENT_TYPE $content_type;
24. fastcgi_param CONTENT_LENGTH $content_length;
25. #fastcgi_param SCRIPT_NAME $fastcgi_script_name;
26. fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_script_name;
27. fastcgi_param REQUEST_URI $request_uri;
28. fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_URI $document_uri;
29. fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_ROOT $document_root;
30. fastcgi_param SERVER_PROTOCOL $server_protocol;
31. fastcgi_param GATEWAY_INTERFACE CGI/1.1;
32. fastcgi_param SERVER_SOFTWARE nginx/$nginx_version;
33. fastcgi_param REMOTE_ADDR $remote_addr;
34. fastcgi_param REMOTE_PORT $remote_port;
35. fastcgi_param SERVER_ADDR $server_addr;
36. fastcgi_param SERVER_PORT $server_port;
37. fastcgi_param SERVER_NAME $server_name;

#Catalyst自带文档:
#http://dev.catalyst.perl.org/wik ... fastcgi.view?rev=22
#以上文档介绍的是lighttpd和catalyst的结合,本质是一样的
#实际上也就是用自动生成的script/[myapp]_fastcgi.pl来启动,剩下的事,就随意啦(只是用什么来做前端而已)
#首先安装FCGI模块
cpan
install FCGI
install FCGI:rocManager

cd /var/www/project/script
chmod 755 project_fastcgi.pl
./project_fastcgi.pl -listen 127.0.0.1:3003 -nproc 10 -pidfile /var/run/fcgi_catalyst.pid -daemon

#nginx中,配置:
location / {
fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:3003;
include /var/www/project/root/fastcgi.conf;
}
#fastcgi.conf详细(注意点:将SCRIPT_NAME替换成PATH_INFO即可)
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param QUERY_STRING $query_string;
fastcgi_param REQUEST_METHOD $request_method;
fastcgi_param CONTENT_TYPE $content_type;
fastcgi_param CONTENT_LENGTH $content_length;
#fastcgi_param SCRIPT_NAME $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param REQUEST_URI $request_uri;
fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_URI $document_uri;
fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_ROOT $document_root;
fastcgi_param SERVER_PROTOCOL $server_protocol;
fastcgi_param GATEWAY_INTERFACE CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param SERVER_SOFTWARE nginx/$nginx_version;
fastcgi_param REMOTE_ADDR $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param REMOTE_PORT $remote_port;
fastcgi_param SERVER_ADDR $server_addr;
fastcgi_param SERVER_PORT $server_port;
fastcgi_param SERVER_NAME $server_name;

最后,因为nginx没有方便的控制命令可用,经常要ps,kill等直接控制,比较麻烦,可以为它写一个启动脚本,例子如下:
Shell代码

1. #!/bin/sh
2. #
3. # description: Starts, stops nginx
4. #
5. #chkconfig: 2345 20 80
6. #dscription: Startup script for nginx webserver on CentOS. Place in /etc/init.d
7. #
8. # Author: Touya
9. set -e
10.
11. PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
12. DESC=”nginx daemon”
13. NAME=nginx
14. DAEMON=/usr/local/nginx/sbin/$NAME
15. CONFIGFILE=/var/www/poseidon/root/nginx.conf
16. PIDFILE=/var/run/$NAME.pid
17. SCRIPTNAME=/etc/init.d/$NAME
18.
19. # Gracefully exit if the package has been removed.
20. test -x $DAEMON || exit 0
21.
22. d_start() {
23. echo “Starting $DESC: $NAME”
24. $DAEMON -c $CONFIGFILE || echo “already running”
25. }
26.
27. d_stop() {
28. echo “Stopping $DESC: $NAME”
29. test -f $PIDFILE && kill -QUIT `cat $PIDFILE`
30. }
31.
32. d_reload() {
33. echo “Reloading $DESC configuration…”
34. kill -HUP `cat $PIDFILE` || echo “can’t reload”
35. }
36. case “$1″ in
37. ’start’)
38. d_start
39. echo “started.”
40. ;;
41. ’stop’)
42. d_stop
43. echo “stoped.”
44. ;;
45. ‘reload’)
46. d_reload
47. echo “reloaded.”
48. ;;
49. ‘restart’)
50. echo “Restarting $DESC: $NAME …”
51. d_stop
52. # One second might not be time enough for a daemon to stop,
53. # if this happens, d_start will fail (and dpkg will break if
54. # the package is being upgraded). Change the timeout if needed
55. # be, or change d_stop to have start-stop-daemon use –retry.
56. # Notice that using –retry slows down the shutdown process somewhat.
57. sleep 3
58. d_start
59. echo “done.”
60. ;;
61. ‘list’)
62. ps auxf | egrep ‘(PID|nginx)’ | grep -v grep
63. ;;
64. ‘test’)
65. $DAEMON -t -c $CONFIGFILE
66. ;;
67. *)
68. echo “Usage: $SCRIPTNAME {reload|list|test|start|stop|restart}” >&2
69. exit 3
70. ;;
71. esac
72. exit 0

#!/bin/sh
#
# description: Starts, stops nginx
#
#chkconfig: 2345 20 80
#dscription: Startup script for nginx webserver on CentOS. Place in /etc/init.d
#
# Author: Touya
set -e

PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
DESC=”nginx daemon”
NAME=nginx
DAEMON=/usr/local/nginx/sbin/$NAME
CONFIGFILE=/var/www/poseidon/root/nginx.conf
PIDFILE=/var/run/$NAME.pid
SCRIPTNAME=/etc/init.d/$NAME

# Gracefully exit if the package has been removed.
test -x $DAEMON || exit 0

d_start() {
echo “Starting $DESC: $NAME”
$DAEMON -c $CONFIGFILE || echo “already running”
}

d_stop() {
echo “Stopping $DESC: $NAME”
test -f $PIDFILE && kill -QUIT `cat $PIDFILE`
}

d_reload() {
echo “Reloading $DESC configuration…”
kill -HUP `cat $PIDFILE` || echo “can’t reload”
}
case “$1″ in
’start’)
d_start
echo “started.”
;;
’stop’)
d_stop
echo “stoped.”
;;
‘reload’)
d_reload
echo “reloaded.”
;;
‘restart’)
echo “Restarting $DESC: $NAME …”
d_stop
# One second might not be time enough for a daemon to stop,
# if this happens, d_start will fail (and dpkg will break if
# the package is being upgraded). Change the timeout if needed
# be, or change d_stop to have start-stop-daemon use –retry.
# Notice that using –retry slows down the shutdown process somewhat.
sleep 3
d_start
echo “done.”
;;
‘list’)
ps auxf | egrep ‘(PID|nginx)’ | grep -v grep
;;
‘test’)
$DAEMON -t -c $CONFIGFILE
;;
*)
echo “Usage: $SCRIPTNAME {reload|list|test|start|stop|restart}” >&2
exit 3
;;
esac
exit 0

保存文件,并chmod 755 /etc/init.d/nginx
用chkconfig –list nginx查看是否是一个可用后台启动服务,如果是的话,可以直接执行chkconfig –add nginx,这个后台服务搞定(代码中不可省略:#chkconfig: 2345 20 80)
接下可以用service nginx start|restart|stop来操作你的nginx服务器(restart时重新读入config)

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